Volume 8, Issue 1, March 2019, Page: 20-34
Cyclical Balanced Development of Economy and Society for Full Employment and National Happiness
Bark Soon IL, Korea Social Policy Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Received: Nov. 22, 2018;       Accepted: Mar. 4, 2019;       Published: Mar. 20, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.eco.20190801.14      View  31      Downloads  12
Abstract
The ultimate goals of the economy are full employment and promoting the happiness of the people. This paper analyzes empirically the failures to achieve full employment and national happiness promotion despite long-term economic development in the economic policies of liberal, socialist, and socio-democratic regimes. It is emphasizing unused resources such as chronic unemployment and surplus of capital as the main reasons for these failures. To fulfill these main purposes, a cyclical equilibrium development model of economy and society is suggested here. The roles of civilians are also stressed to complement the failures of the market and governments. And To achieve the flexible movement of labor and the complete use of surplus labor and excessively accumulated capital, the monopolization of the markets, governments, and civil bodies including large unions of labor and professional occupations must be removed. The employment of workers with relatively weak labor abilities is contributory to enhancing national happiness by increasing social as well as economic value especially in the period of economic depression. Policy directions and several measures including deregulation of markets, the punitive taxations on the preventions of labor mobility and excessive replacement of labor with capital intensive methods, and the expansion of social enterprises are also provided to enable the model to be applied in Korea.
Keywords
Full Employment, National Happiness Index, Cyclical Equilibrium Development, Market Liberty, Economic & Social Value, Citizen's Public Service Participation
To cite this article
Bark Soon IL, Cyclical Balanced Development of Economy and Society for Full Employment and National Happiness, Economics. Vol. 8, No. 1, 2019, pp. 20-34. doi: 10.11648/j.eco.20190801.14
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Ko, Kyung Whan etc., Social Expenditure of Korea based in 2013, Korea Institute of Health and Social Affairs, policy paper 2014-83, page 212-218.
[2]
E. F. Schmacher (translated by Kim Jeoung Woo), Small is Beautiful; Economics As If People Mattered, 1988, Dae Won Jung Sa.
[3]
Kim, Seung Kwon, Kim Yoo Kyung etc., The 2009 National Survey on Fertility, Family Health and Welfare in Korea, research paper 2009-33, Korea Institute of Health and Social Affairs, p. 341 (table 10-26) & p. 340 (table 10-25), pp. 337-9 (table 10-22), (table 10-23), & (table 10-24).
[4]
Kim, Seung Taek, Shin Yong Sang etc, A Study on Employment Strategy to Create Workplaces - 2008 Employment Strategy Study, 2007, Korea Labor Institute. page 24 (Chart II-2) and page 71 (Chart IV-2).
[5]
Kim, Hae Won, Park Chan Im, Hwang Duk Soon, A Empirical Study on Creation of Employment in the 3rd sector, Korea Labor Institute, 2008.
[6]
Kim, Hae Won, Is the Social Enterprise Sustainable in Social Service? Labor Review, Korea Labor Institute, 2007.
[7]
Clifford H. Douglas (Translated by Lee Seung Hyun), Social Credit: Why is Basic Income necessary?, Yeuk Sa co., April 2016, p. 97, p. 173 & p. 117.
[8]
Park, Se Kyung etc., A Study on Growth Possibility of Social Service as Industry, 2014, Korea Institute of Health and Social Affairs, 14-12.
[9]
Bark, Soon Il, Choice of Technology and Employment, 1975, M. A. dissertation of graduate school of Seoul National University.
[10]
Bark, Soon Il etc., The Analysis of Impoverishment Factors in Korea and Policy Direction, Korea Institute of Health and Social Affairs, 1993, p. 90 (table 41).
[11]
Bark, Soon Il, Choi Hyun Soo etc., The Analysis on Causes of Expansion of Disparity between Rich and Poor and Policy Measures for the poor and under middle Class, Policy Paper 2000-14, Korea Institute of Health and Social Affairs, p. 47 (table II-3), p. 68 (table II-16).
[12]
Bark, Soon Il, Worsening Income Distribution After the Economic Crisis And Policy Recommendations, presented paper in the conference of Social Policy in Asia Pacific Region.
[13]
Bark, Soon Il, What is the End of Welfare Competition? A Opportunity for new Welfare Society? or A Prelude for a New Conflict Period? - Cyclical Balanced Development Model of Economy and Society, e-book 21, 2012, p. 77.
[14]
Bark Soon Il, A cyclical Equilibrating Development of Economy and SDociety of Enhancing National Happiness and Full Employment, pages 1-44, Journal of Korean Economic Development, Vol.23, No. 1, March 2017.
[15]
Yoo, Keun Choon etc., A Study on Fusion of Welfare and Technology, 2014-2, Korea Institute of Health and social Affairs, pp. 37-38.
[16]
Ryu, Chon Il, “The Future of Capitalist Market Economy”, World Economy and Korea Economy in Risk, a seminar paper March 2016, Seoul Institute of Society and Economy.
[17]
Yoon, Jeoun Hyang, Realities of Creation of Social Work places and Measures for Improvement, Korea Institute of Employment Information, 2007.
[18]
Jeon, Byung You, Park, Chan Im, Whang, Duk Soon etc., A Study on Creation of Social Work places, Korea Labor Institute, 2003.
[19]
Jeong, Hae Sik and Kim, Seong A, The Quality of Life Korea in view of OECD BLI Indicators, Health Welfare Forum, Sep. 2015, Korea Institute of Health and Social Affairs.
[20]
The Head Quarter of Health Management & Korea Institute of Health and Social Affairs, National Health Survey, the Third (2005) In depth Study - Parts of Health Interview and Health consciousness, 2007, p. 100 (table 5), p. 323 (table 6).
[21]
Korea Institute of Health and Social Affairs & Korea Labor Institute, A Report of Survey on Realities of Unemployment and Welfare, Apr. 1999.
[22]
Hong, Seok Pyo & Bark, Soon Il etc., A Study on Improving System for Financial Effectiveness Through Social Safety Net, research paper 2002-13, Korea Institute of Health and Social Affairs.
[23]
Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee, and Michel Spence, "New World Order, Capital, and Ideas in the Power Law Economy". Foreign Affairs, July/August 2014.
[24]
OECD/Korea Policy Center, Growing Unequal? Income Distribution and Poverty in OECD Countries. 2010.
[25]
OECD/Korea Policy Center, Society At a Glance 2011, page 67.
[26]
Samuelson, P. A. Economics, 8th ed. 1970, p. 745.
[27]
OECD, Better Life Index, 2014.
[28]
UN, World Happiness report 2016.
[29]
Yeon-hap News, in Korea, 2011.12.10.
Browse journals by subject